Massive MIMO Performance With Imperfect Channel Reciprocity and Channel Estimation Error

De Mi, Mehrdad Dianati, Lei Zhang, Sami Muhaidat, Rahim Tafazolli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Scopus citations


Channel reciprocity in time-division duplexing (TDD) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can be exploited to reduce the overhead required for the acquisition of channel state information (CSI). However, perfect reciprocity is unrealistic in practical systems due to random radio-frequency (RF) circuit mismatches in uplink and downlink channels. This can result in a significant degradation in the performance of linear precoding schemes, which are sensitive to the accuracy of the CSI. In this paper, we model and analyse the impact of RF mismatches on the performance of linear precoding in a TDD multi-user massive MIMO system, by taking the channel estimation error into considerations. We use the truncated Gaussian distribution to model the RF mismatch, and derive closed-form expressions of the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio for maximum ratio transmission and zero forcing precoders. We further investigate the asymptotic performance of the derived expressions, to provide valuable insights into the practical system designs, including useful guidelines for the selection of the effective precoding schemes. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed analytical results.

Original languageBritish English
Article number7867037
Pages (from-to)3734-3749
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2017


  • Channel reciprocity error
  • Imperfect channel estimation
  • Linear precoding
  • Massive MU-MIMO
  • RF mismatch


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