Lithium titanate battery system enables hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles: Journal of Energy Storage

G. Dang, M. Zhang, F. Min, Y. Zhang, B. Zhang, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, W. Liu, J. Xie, S.S. Mao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Electrification plays an important role in the transformation of the global vehicle industry. Targeting the rapidly growing heavy-duty off-highway vehicles, we developed a battery system for hybrid-electric heavy-duty trucks based on lithium titanium oxide (LTO) batteries. With LTO as the anode and nickel manganese cobalt (NCM) as the cathode, comprehensive measurements of the battery cells and modules indicate that LTO batteries are uniquely suitable for applications requiring high-rate fast charging and discharging. An LTO battery system was constructed and implemented to realize the first advanced lithium-ion battery-based hybrid-electric heavy-duty vehicle, a hybrid-electric mining truck with vehicle mass 34 ton and maximum load 60 ton. Field operation tests of the hybrid-electric vehicle suggest that the performance of the LTO battery system meet the design expectations. After analyzing operation parameters of the hybrid-electric heavy-duty vehicle, we found 54.9 % fuel savings compared to conventional diesel-powered truck of the same mass and load. © 2023
Original languageBritish English
JournalJ. Energy Storage
StatePublished - 2023


  • Hybrid electric vehicle
  • Lithium titanate battery
  • Anodes
  • Charging (batteries)
  • Fuel economy
  • Highway engineering
  • Hybrid vehicles
  • Lithium compounds
  • Mining
  • Off road vehicles
  • Titanium oxides
  • Battery systems
  • Comprehensive measurement
  • Heavy duty
  • Heavy duty vehicles
  • Heavy-duty trucks
  • Lithium titanate
  • Lithium titanium oxide
  • Off-highway vehicle
  • Vehicle industry
  • Lithium-ion batteries


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