Is in-cabin exposure to carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter amplified by the vehicle's self-pollution potential? Quantifying the rate of exhaust intrusion

G. Harik, M. El-Fadel, A. Shihadeh, I. Alameddine, M. Hatzopoulou

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    16 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    In-cabin exposure has increased in recent years due to longer commute and/or prolonged times in cars. The intrusion of the vehicle's own exhaust into the passenger's compartment has been recognized as a process that amplifies in-cabin passenger exposure. Quantifying its contribution is hampered by uncertainties associated with its measurement method such as trace tests and the lack of data regarding certain critical physical parameters, particularly those pertaining to air exchange rate (AER) and particulate matter deposition rate (DR). In this study, we present a hybrid methodology combining field measurements with a single-zone mass balance to estimate these parameters as well as the source term that represents vehicle self-pollution. In- and out-vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were monitored concurrently in test vehicles under idle and moving conditions using several common ventilation modes. In addition to defining a hybrid methodology to characterize the underlying physical parameters, this study found that vehicle self-pollution can account for approximately 15 and 30% of CO and PM2.5 exposure experienced by vehicle occupants respectively. Vehicle self-exhaust intrusion may constitute a significant PM exposure route for vehicle-based occupations or commuters with prolonged time in vehicles.

    Original languageBritish English
    Pages (from-to)225-238
    Number of pages14
    JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
    Volume54
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jul 2017

    Keywords

    • Air exchange rate
    • In-cabin exposure
    • PM deposition rate
    • Vehicle self-pollution potential

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