Internal and external temperature monitoring of a li-ion battery with fiber bragg grating sensors

Susana Novais, Micael Nascimento, Lorenzo Grande, Maria Fátima Domingues, Paulo Antunes, Nélia Alberto, Cátia Leitão, Ricardo Oliveira, Stephan Koch, Guk Tae Kim, Stefano Passerini, João Pinto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

121 Scopus citations


The integration of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in lithium-ion cells for in-situ and in-operando temperature monitoring is presented herein. The measuring of internal and external temperature variations was performed through four FBG sensors during galvanostatic cycling at C-rates ranging from 1C to 8C. The FBG sensors were placed both outside and inside the cell, located in the center of the electrochemically active area and at the tab-electrode connection. The internal sensors recorded temperature variations of 4.0 ± 0.1 °C at 5C and 4.7 ± 0.1 °C at 8C at the center of the active area, and 3.9 ± 0.1 °C at 5C and 4.0 ± 0.1 °C at 8C at the tab-electrode connection, respectively. This study is intended to contribute to detection of a temperature gradient in real time inside a cell, which can determine possible damage in the battery performance when it operates under normal and abnormal operating conditions, as well as to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integration of in-operando microsensors inside Li-ion cells.

Original languageBritish English
Article number1394
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2016


  • Embedded sensors
  • Li-ion batteries
  • Performance
  • Safety
  • Temperature monitoring


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