TY - JOUR

T1 - Interfacial gradient plasticity governs scale-dependent yield strength and strain hardening rates in micro/nano structured metals

AU - Abu Al-Rub, Rashid K.

PY - 2008/8

Y1 - 2008/8

N2 - The effect of the material microstructural interfaces increases as the surface-to-volume ratio increases. It is shown in this work that interfacial effects have a profound impact on the scale-dependent yield strength and strain hardening of micro/nano-systems even under uniform stressing. This is achieved by adopting a higher-order gradient-dependent plasticity theory [Abu Al-Rub, R.K., Voyiadjis, G.Z., Bammann, D.J., 2007. A thermodynamic based higher-order gradient theory for size dependent plasticity. Int. J. Solids Struct. 44, 2888-2923] that enforces microscopic boundary conditions at interfaces and free surfaces. Those nonstandard boundary conditions relate a microtraction stress to the interfacial energy at the interface. In addition to the nonlocal yield condition for the material's bulk, a microscopic yield condition for the interface is presented, which determines the stress at which the interface begins to deform plastically and harden. Hence, two material length scales are incorporated: one for the bulk and the other for the interface. Different expressions for the interfacial energy are investigated. The effect of the interfacial yield strength and interfacial hardening are studied by analytically solving a one-dimensional Hall-Petch-type size effect problem. It is found that when assuming compliant interfaces the interface properties control both the material's global yield strength and rates of strain hardening such that the interfacial strength controls the global yield strength whereas the interfacial hardening controls both the global yield strength and strain hardening rates. On the other hand, when assuming a stiff interface, the bulk length scale controls both the global yield strength and strain hardening rates. Moreover, it is found that in order to correctly predict the increase in the yield strength with decreasing size, the interfacial length scale should scale the magnitude of both the interfacial yield strength and interfacial hardening.

AB - The effect of the material microstructural interfaces increases as the surface-to-volume ratio increases. It is shown in this work that interfacial effects have a profound impact on the scale-dependent yield strength and strain hardening of micro/nano-systems even under uniform stressing. This is achieved by adopting a higher-order gradient-dependent plasticity theory [Abu Al-Rub, R.K., Voyiadjis, G.Z., Bammann, D.J., 2007. A thermodynamic based higher-order gradient theory for size dependent plasticity. Int. J. Solids Struct. 44, 2888-2923] that enforces microscopic boundary conditions at interfaces and free surfaces. Those nonstandard boundary conditions relate a microtraction stress to the interfacial energy at the interface. In addition to the nonlocal yield condition for the material's bulk, a microscopic yield condition for the interface is presented, which determines the stress at which the interface begins to deform plastically and harden. Hence, two material length scales are incorporated: one for the bulk and the other for the interface. Different expressions for the interfacial energy are investigated. The effect of the interfacial yield strength and interfacial hardening are studied by analytically solving a one-dimensional Hall-Petch-type size effect problem. It is found that when assuming compliant interfaces the interface properties control both the material's global yield strength and rates of strain hardening such that the interfacial strength controls the global yield strength whereas the interfacial hardening controls both the global yield strength and strain hardening rates. On the other hand, when assuming a stiff interface, the bulk length scale controls both the global yield strength and strain hardening rates. Moreover, it is found that in order to correctly predict the increase in the yield strength with decreasing size, the interfacial length scale should scale the magnitude of both the interfacial yield strength and interfacial hardening.

KW - Interfacial energy

KW - Length scale

KW - Nonlocal

KW - Size effect

KW - Thin films

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=43149099900&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijplas.2007.09.005

DO - 10.1016/j.ijplas.2007.09.005

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:43149099900

SN - 0749-6419

VL - 24

SP - 1277

EP - 1306

JO - International Journal of Plasticity

JF - International Journal of Plasticity

IS - 8

ER -