In-Situ Spectro-Electrochemistry of Conductive Polymers Using Plasmonics to Reveal Doping Mechanisms

Jialong Peng, Qianqi Lin, Tamás Földes, Hyeon Ho Jeong, Yuling Xiong, Charalampos Pitsalidis, George G. Malliaras, Edina Rosta, Jeremy J. Baumberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Conducting polymers are a key component for developing wearable organic electronics, but tracking their redox processes at the nanoscale to understand their doping mechanism remains challenging. Here we present an in-situ spectro-electrochemical technique to observe redox dynamics of conductive polymers in an extremely localized volume (<100 nm3). Plasmonic nanoparticles encapsulated by thin shells of different conductive polymers provide actively tuned scattering color through switching their refractive index. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in combination with cyclic voltammetry enables detailed studies of the redox/doping process. Our data intriguingly show that the doping mechanism varies with polymer conductivity: a disproportionation mechanism dominates in more conductive polymers, while sequential electron transfer prevails in less conductive polymers.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)21120-21128
Number of pages9
JournalACS Nano
Issue number12
StatePublished - 27 Dec 2022


  • conductive polymers
  • doping mechanism
  • nanoparticle
  • plasmonics
  • redox
  • spectro-electrochemistry
  • surface-enhanced Raman scattering


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