In-situ monitoring of reinforcement compaction response via MXene-coated glass fabric sensors

M. A. Ali, M. S. Irfan, T. Khan, F. Ubaid, K. Liao, Rehan Umer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


In this study, MXene-coated glass fabric sensors were used to obtain reinforcement compaction and stress relaxation data within a closed mold. A layer of MXene-coated sensor was embedded within a multilayer glass fiber preform to monitor compaction forces under both dry and wet conditions i.e., when the stack was fully impregnated with resin or a test fluid. The effect of the test fluid type on compressibility and sensor piezo-resistivity was also determined. The sensors showed excellent sensitivity in both dry and impregnated states and were able to successfully monitor different loading conditions such as peak stresses carried by the reinforcement, long-term stress relaxation and cyclic loads. Polynomial data fitting and machine learning models were used to calibrate the sensors to predict the compaction response. An electro-mechanical based model, on the lines of traditional viscoelastic stress relaxation model, was used to represent piezo-resistivity for long term relaxation. The proposed technique has great potential of in-situ monitoring of mold clamping forces and part thickness by measuring piezo-resistive changes taking place throughout a molding cycle using MXene based embedded smart sensors.

Original languageBritish English
Article number109623
JournalComposites Science and Technology
StatePublished - 18 Aug 2022


  • A. Graphene and other 2D-materials
  • A. Multifunctional composites
  • B. Electro-mechanical behavior
  • C. Stress relaxation
  • E. Resin transfer molding (RTM)


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