Impact of Various Visible Spectra on Attached Microalgal Growth on Palm Decanter Cake in Triggering Protein, Carbohydrate, and Lipid to Biodiesel Production

Zhi Wei Tiong, Hemamalini Rawindran, Wai Hong Leong, Chin Seng Liew, Yi Ying Wong, Worapon Kiatkittipong, Eman Alaaeldin Abdelfattah, Pau Loke Show, Anisa Ur Rahmah, Woei Yenn Tong, Jun Wei Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Attached microalgal growth of Chlorella vulgaris on palm decanter cake (PDC) under irradiation with various visible monochromatic and polychromatic spectra to produce biodiesel was studied in this work. The results demonstrated that the white spectrum cultivation exhibited the highest microalgal density of 1.13 g/g along with 1.213 g/L day of microalgal productivity. Correspondingly, the biodiesel obtained was comprised mainly of C16 and C18 fatty acids, possessing a high cetane number and oxidation stability from the high saturated fatty acid content (70.38%), which was appealing in terms of most biodiesel production requirements. Nevertheless, the highest lipid content (14.341%) and lipid productivity (93.428 mg/L per day) were discovered with green spectrum cultivation. Blue and white spectra led to similar protein contents (34%) as well as carbohydrate contents (61%), corroborating PDC as a feasible carbon and nutrient source for growing microalgae. Lastly, the energy feasibilities of growing the attached microalgae under visible spectra were investigated, with the highest net energy ratio (NER) of 0.302 found for the yellow spectrum. This value outweighed that in many other works which have used suspended growth systems to produce microalgal fuel feedstock. The microalgal growth attached to PDC is deemed to be a suitable alternative cultivation mode for producing sustainable microalgal feedstock for the biofuel industry.

Original languageBritish English
Article number1583
JournalProcesses
Volume10
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • attached growth
  • biodiesel
  • microalgae
  • net energy ratio
  • palm decanter cake
  • visible spectrum

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