Immobilization of phenol in cement-based solidified/stabilized hazardous wastes using regenerated activated carbon: Leaching studies

Vikram M. Hebatpuria, Hassan A. Arafat, Hong Sang Rho, Paul L. Bishop, Neville G. Pinto, Relva C. Buchanan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this research, we investigated the use of an inexpensive thermally regenerated activated carbon as a pre-adsorbent in the solidification/stabilization of phenol-contaminated sand. Our results show that even the addition of very low amounts of regenerated activated carbon (1%-2% w/w sand) resulted in the rapid adsorption of phenol in the Chemical solidification/stabilization (S/S) matrix, with phenol leaching reduced by as much as 600%. Adsorption studies indicated that the adsorption of phenol on the reactivated carbon was found to be partially irreversible over time in the S/S waste form, indicating possible chemical adsorption. Pore-fluid analyses of the cement paste containing phenol suggested the formation of a calcium-phenol complex, which further reduced the amount of free phenol present in the pores. Studies using several micro-structural techniques, including field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicated significant morphological changes in the cement matrix upon the addition of phenol and reactivated carbon. The hydration of cement in the presence of phenol was retarded concomitant with formation of amorphous portlandite. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)117-138
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume70
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 31 Dec 1999

Keywords

  • Activated carbon
  • Infra-red spectroscopy
  • Organics
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Solidification/stabilization

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