Hybrid MAC Protocol for Brain-Computer Interface Applications

Shams Al Ajrawi, Arafat Al-Dweik, Ramesh Rao, Mahasweta Sarkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Brain-computer interface (BCI) can permit individuals to use their thoughts as the sole means to control objects such as smart homes and robots. While BCI is a promising interdisciplinary tool, researchers are confronting network lifetime as an obstacle to further development. Furthermore, the medium access control (MAC) protocol is the bottleneck of the network reliability. There are many standards for MAC protocols that can be utilized for productive and dependable transmission by altering the control parameters. Modifying these parameters is another source of concern due to the scarcity in knowledge about its effect. In addition, there is no instrument accessible to receive and actualize these parameters on transmitters embedded inside the cerebrum. In this article, we give the transmission instrument to both ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) and ultra-wideband (UWB) signals for multiple transmitters and ultrasonic technology mimicking the neural dusts by modifying the superframe structure. In this article, a hybrid MAC protocol is proposed, and the results show that the traffic received can be increased by 700% for UHF-RFID and more than 100% for UWB and ultrasonic technology. Comparative results for wireless channel MAC protocols using these different transmission techniques are discussed in terms of network delay, data dropped, traffic sent, and traffic received.

Original languageBritish English
Article number9241828
Pages (from-to)1567-1577
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs)
  • data dropped
  • delay
  • frequency-division multiple access (FDMA)
  • medium access control (MAC)
  • time-division multiple access (TDMA)
  • ultra-wideband (UWB)
  • ultrahigh-frequency radio frequency identification (UHF-RFID)
  • ultrasonic


Dive into the research topics of 'Hybrid MAC Protocol for Brain-Computer Interface Applications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this