Human-Machine Interactions in Very-Low-Level UAS Operations and Traffic Management

Nichakorn Pongsakornsathien, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini, Trevor Kistan, Neta Ezer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

10 Scopus citations


With the proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in low-altitude airspace and a growing interest in new Urban Air Mobility (UAM) solutions, the Air Traffic Controller (ATCo)'s responsibility to ensure safety and efficiency of operations can no longer be fulfilled with the conventional air traffic control paradigm. Hence, a new increasingly autonomous Decision Support System (DSS) specifically designed for integrated manned/UAS Traffic Management (UTM) is of paramount importance. This DSS makes use of advanced traffic flow and airspace management concepts, but to ensure effective teaming between the human and the system in challenging situations, the nature of their roles and responsibilities is to be analysed in depth and reflected in the design of suitable Human-Machine Interfaces and Interactions (HMI2). The task analysis presented in this paper assessed the interdependencies between the human and the machine following the Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) framework. The paper focuses on the management of urban airspace, which is partitioned based on navigation performance. The human-machine workflow is presented and discussed, highlighting the proposed interactions in each subtask. To support closed-loop interactions and enhance system integrity, the UTM DSS makes use of the Cognitive HMI2 concept, which is also briefly outlined in this paper.

Original languageBritish English
Title of host publicationDASC 2020 - 39th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781728198255
StatePublished - 11 Oct 2020
Event39th AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference, DASC 2020 - Virtual, San Antonio, United States
Duration: 11 Oct 202016 Oct 2020

Publication series

NameAIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference - Proceedings
ISSN (Print)2155-7195
ISSN (Electronic)2155-7209


Conference39th AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference, DASC 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, San Antonio


  • Decision Making
  • Decision Support System
  • Human-Machine Interface
  • Human-Machine System
  • UAS Traffic Management
  • Urban Air Mobility


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