Holistic process evaluation of non-conventional palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment technologies: A conceptual and comparative review

Yoke Wang Cheng, Chi Cheng Chong, Man Kee Lam, Muhammad Ayoub, Chin Kui Cheng, Jun Wei Lim, Suzana Yusup, Yuanyuan Tang, Jiaming Bai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

Thriving oil palm agroindustry comes at a price of voluminous waste generation, with palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the most cumbersome waste due to its liquid state, high strength, and great discharge volume. In view of incompetent conventional ponding treatment, a voluminous number of publications on non-conventional POME treatments is filed in the Scopus database, mainly working on alternative or polishing POME treatments. In dearth of such comprehensive review, all the non-conventional POME treatments are rigorously reviewed in a conceptual and comparative manner. Herein, non-conventional POME treatments are sorted into the five major routes, viz. biological (bioconversions – aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation), physical (flotation & membrane filtration), chemical (Fenton oxidation), physicochemical (photooxidation, steam reforming, coagulation-flocculation, adsorption, & ultrasonication), and bioelectrochemical (microbial fuel cell) pathways. For aforementioned treatments, the constraints, pros, and cons are qualitatively and quantitatively (with compiled performance data) detailed to indicate their process maturity. Authors recommended (i) bioconversions, adsorption, and steam reforming as primary treatments, (ii) flotation and ultrasonication as pretreatments, (iii) Fenton oxidation, photooxidation, and membrane filtration as polishing treatments, and (iv) microbial fuel cell and coagulation-flocculation as pretreatment or polishing treatment. Life cycle assessments are required to evaluate the environmental, economic, and energy aspects of each process.

Original languageBritish English
Article number124964
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume409
DOIs
StatePublished - 5 May 2021

Keywords

  • Industrial effluent
  • Oil palm waste
  • Pollution control
  • Process maturity
  • Wastewater treatment

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Holistic process evaluation of non-conventional palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment technologies: A conceptual and comparative review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this