High resolution and polarization independent microwave near-field imaging using planar resonator probes

Andri Haryono, Khadeeja Aljaberi, Mohammed Saif Ur Rahman, Mohamed A. Abou-Khousa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Various near-field microwave imaging probes were developed previously for nondestructive testing of material structures. Sensitivity and resolution are key parameters for quantifying the efficacy of a given imaging probe. For polarized targets like cracks, the sensitivity of conventional aperture probes depends on the relative orientation between the probe’s electric-field vector and the target. In practice, target orientation is typically unknown. Furthermore, the imaging resolution of conventional aperture probes is limited to aperture dimensions. Obtaining imaging resolution in the order of few millimeters using conventional aperture probes requires operation at high frequencies, (above 30 GHz). In contrast, planar probes consisting of loops loaded with spiral resonators could provide resolution in the order of few millimeters while working at relatively low frequencies (below 1 GHz). Unlike conventional aperture probes, the radiated near-fields of these probes are characterized by two significant components oriented along orthogonal axes. Therefore, the probe intrinsically provides a polarization-independent response. In this article, the near-field imaging resolution of the planar resonator probe is further enhanced, and its polarization-independent response is demonstrated for the first time. The response of three planar probe prototypes of different dimensions is analyzed based on numerical simulation and experimental results. The performance of the probes is extensively evaluated by acquiring line-scans and 2D-images of metal and dielectric samples. The near-field images of the metal sample obtained using the planar probes working below 1 GHz are compared to the images obtained using aperture probes working at 24 GHz, 33 GHz, and 70 GHz. Furthermore, the probe imaging performance for a polarized target (i.e., narrow cuts) is compared to dual-polarized circular probe working at 24 GHz and open-ended coaxial probe working at 10 GHz. Overall, the proposed probe yielded more than twofold increase in the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to all the probes utilized herein.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)191421-191432
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2020


  • Microwave imaging
  • Near-field
  • Non-destructive testing
  • Planar probe
  • Polarization
  • Spiral resonator


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