Hierarchical porous titanium dioxide nanosheets with surface-engineering for exceptional sodium storage performance

Baosong Li, Muhammad Sajjad, Anwer Shoaib, Shaohong Luo, Nirpendra Singh, Kin Liao

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    1 Scopus citations


    Structural reconstruction derived from surface engineering has substantially improved fast and high-efficient charge storage for sodium-ion batteries. Here, a surface engineering strategy including phosphorus doping and nitrogen-doped carbon coating simultaneously realizes surface structural reconstruction and establishes a conductive network, which significantly enhances Na+ storage kinetics of TiO2. Expectedly, functionalized TiO2 nanocrystals with phosphorus doping and nitrogen-doped carbon coating present expedited electron and Na+ transfer and enhanced structural stability during Na+ insertion/extraction, fueled by the enhanced surface electrochemical reactivity and unique hybrid structure. Therefore, surface-engineered two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 nanosheets achieve exceptional Na+ storage performance including the ultralong cycling stability with reversible capacities of 223 mAh/g at 5C for 10,000 cycles at 5C, 212 mAh/g at 10C for 20,000 cycles, and 203 mAh/g at 20C for 5000 cycles, as well as an ultrahigh rate capability of 181 mAh/g up to 50C. This functionalizing strategy fueled by surface engineering paves a new way for achieving high-performed anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. © 2023 Elsevier B.V.
    Original languageAmerican English
    JournalApplied Surface Science
    Issue number158310
    StatePublished - 2023


    • 2D hierarchical structure
    • Phosphorus doping
    • Sodium-ion batteries
    • Surface reconstruction
    • Titanium dioxide
    • Anodes
    • Carbon
    • Coatings
    • Doping (additives)
    • Metal ions
    • Nanosheets
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Stability
    • Storage (materials)
    • 2d hierarchical structure
    • Carbon coating
    • Hierarchical structures
    • Nitrogen-doped carbons
    • Sodium ion batteries
    • Storage performance
    • Structural reconstruction
    • Surface engineering
    • Surfaces reconstruction


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