Harvesting Devices' Heterogeneous Energy Profiles and QoS Requirements in IoT: WPT-NOMA vs BAC-NOMA

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The next generation Internet of Things (IoT) exhibits a unique feature that IoT devices have different energy profiles and quality of service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, two energy and spectrally efficient transmission strategies, namely wireless power transfer assisted non-orthogonal multiple access (WPT-NOMA) and backscatter communication (Back-Com) assisted NOMA (BAC-NOMA), are proposed by utilizing this feature of IoT and employing spectrum and energy cooperation among the devices. In particular, the use of NOMA ensures that the devices with different QoS requirements can share the same spectrum, and WPT and Back-Com are employed to utilize the cooperation among the devices with different energy profiles, which avoids the use of a dedicated power beacon. Furthermore, for the proposed WPT-NOMA scheme, the application of hybrid successive interference cancelation (SIC) decoding order is also considered, and analytical results are developed to demonstrate that WPT-NOMA can avoid outage probability error floors and realize the full diversity gain. Unlike WPT-NOMA, BAC-NOMA suffers from an outage probability error floor, and the asymptotic behavior of this error floor is analyzed in the paper by applying the extreme value theory. In addition, the effect of a unique feature of BAC-NOMA, i.e., employing one device's signal as the carrier signal for another device, is studied, and its impact on the diversity gain is revealed. Simulation results are also provided to compare the performance of the proposed strategies and verify the developed analytical results.

Original languageBritish English
Article number9328518
Pages (from-to)2837-2850
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021


  • backscatter communications (BackCom)
  • Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)
  • simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT)


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