Glucose Sensing with Phenylboronic Acid Functionalized Hydrogel-Based Optical Diffusers

Mohamed Elsherif, Mohammed Umair Hassan, Ali K. Yetisen, Haider Butt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

142 Scopus citations

Abstract

Phenylboronic acids have emerged as synthetic receptors that can reversibly bind to cis-diols of glucose molecules. The incorporation of phenylboronic acids in hydrogels offers exclusive attributes; for example, the binding process with glucose induces Donnan osmotic pressure resulting in volumetric changes in the matrix. However, their practical applications are hindered because of complex readout approaches and their time-consuming fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a microimprinting method to fabricate densely packed concavities in phenylboronic acid functionalized hydrogel films. A microengineered optical diffuser structure was imprinted on a phenylboronic acid based cis-diol recognizing motif prepositioned in a hydrogel film. The diffuser structure engineered on the hydrogel was based on laser-inscribed arrays of imperfect microlenses that focused the incoming light at different focal lengths and direction resulting in a diffused profile of light in transmission and reflection readout modes. The signature of the dimensional modulation was detected in terms of changing focal lengths of the microlenses due to the volumetric expansion of the hydrogel that altered the diffusion spectra and transmitted beam profile. The transmitted optical light spread and intensity through the sensor was measured to determine variation in glucose concentrations at physiological conditions. The sensor was integrated in a contact lens and placed over an artificial eye. Artificial stimulation of variation in glucose concentration allowed quantitative measurements using a smartphone's photodiode. A smartphone app was utilized to convert the received light intensity to quantitative glucose concentration values. The developed sensing platform offers low cost, rapid fabrication, and easy detection scheme as compared to other optical sensing counterparts. The presented detection scheme may have applications in wearable real-time biomarker monitoring devices at point-of-care settings.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)2283-2291
Number of pages9
JournalACS Nano
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 27 Mar 2018

Keywords

  • contact lenses
  • diffraction
  • glucose sensor
  • phenylboronic acid
  • photonic microstructures

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