FPGAaaS: A Survey of Infrastructures and Systems

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4 Scopus citations


The popularity of cloud computing services for delivering and accessing infrastructure on demand has significantly increased over the last few years. Concurrently, the usage of FPGAs to accelerate compute-intensive applications has become more widespread in different computational domains due to their ability to achieve high throughput and predictable latency while providing programmability and improved energy efficiency. Computationally intensive applications such as big data analytics, machine learning, and video processing have been accelerated by FPGAs. With the exponential workload increase in data centers, major cloud service providers have made FPGAs and their capabilities available as cloud services. However, enabling FPGAs in the cloud is not a trivial task due to incompatibilities with existing cloud infrastructure and operational challenges related to abstraction, virtualization, partitioning, and security. In this article, we survey recent frameworks for offering FPGA hardware acceleration as a cloud service, classify them based on their virtualization mode, tenancy model, communication interface, software stack, and hardware infrastructure. We further highlight current FPGAaaS trends and identify FPGA resource sharing, security, and microservicing as important areas for future research.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)1143-1156
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2022


  • FPGA
  • hardware acceleration
  • microservices
  • orchestration
  • virtualization
  • Web services


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