Foot flare and foot axis

Ravindra S. Goonetilleke, Ameersing Luximon

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    17 Scopus citations


    Most commercial footwear is designed and manufactured on a curved last, although the amount of curvature of the last and the turning point of the last centerline have not been formally determined. In this study, we used principal component analysis to determine the foot axis so that lasts that match feet can be produced, resulting in a good fit. In evaluating 50 Hong Kong Chinese participants, we found that the center of the foot is located at approximately 52% of the foot length measuring from the back of the foot (SD = 0.65%) and that Hong Kong participants have a mean inflare (inward curvature) of 3.2°. The foot center and inflare measures will help determine the fit between footwear and feet. Applications of this research include the ability to incorporate foot flare into the design and manufacture of footwear.

    Original languageBritish English
    Pages (from-to)596-607
    Number of pages12
    JournalHuman Factors
    Issue number4
    StatePublished - Dec 1999


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