Flight Trajectories Optimization of Fixed-Wing UAV by Bank-Turn Mechanism

Affiani Machmudah, Madhavan Shanmugavel, Setyamartana Parman, Teh Sabariah Abd Manan, Denys Dutykh, Salmia Beddu, Armin Rajabi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


This paper addresses an optimization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight trajectories by bank-turn mechanism for a fixed-wing UAV at a constant altitude. The flight trajectories should be optimal and stay in the UAV flight operational area. The maneuver planning is conducted in two steps, which are UAV path planning and UAV flight trajectory planning. For the first step, the Bezier curve is employed as a maneuvering path. The path planning optimization objective is to minimize the path length while satisfying maximum curvature and collision avoidance constraints. The flight trajectories optimization objective is to minimize maneuvering time and load factor considering, minimum/maximum speed, minimum/maximum acceleration, maximum roll angle, maximum turn rate, and aerodynamics constraints. The variable speed trajectory generation is developed within allowable speed zone considering these UAV flight constraints by employing meta-heuristic optimizations. Results show that the PSO have outperformed the GA and the GWO for both steps of path planning and trajectory planning. The variable speed has succeeded in reducing the load factor during the bank-turn mechanism using the Bezier curve. The variable speed is recommended to be conducted when the result of the maneuvering path involve the lower turning radius. A simultaneous on arrival target mission has also succeeded to be conducted using the combination of the variable speed and constant speed strategies.

Original languageBritish English
Article number69
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Flight trajectories optimization
  • Maneuvering
  • Meta-heuristic optimization
  • Sustainability
  • Sustainable flight trajectory
  • UAV


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