Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon II: Seasonal and annual variation

May A. Massoud, Mutasem El-Fadel, Mark D. Scrimshaw, John N. Lester

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    18 Scopus citations


    The water quality of a river at any point reflects several major influences including but are not limited to climatic conditions and anthropogenic inputs. Assessing these influences is essential for managing land and water resources within a particular river catchment. The objectives of this study were to identify the causes of increasing or decreasing trends in the concentrations of various water quality parameters in the Abou Ali River in North Lebanon and to account for the consequential variations both annual and seasonal (low/high flow). The assessment was conducted at the end of the dry season in October 2002 and 2003 and the end of the wet season in March 2003 and 2004. Results established that dissolved oxygen levels were consistently higher at the end of the wet season. The concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen and ortho-phosphates did not exhibit a clear seasonal or annual variation. While the levels of total dissolved solids and nitrate nitrogen exhibited a decreasing trend in urban catchments, an increasing trend was observed in rural, agricultural and forested areas. The findings of this study reinforce the notion that management of point and non-point sources should be integrated as the combination of both sources connected with land use results in deleterious effects on water quality. The lack of good quality water hinders economic development and the potential for long term sustainability.

    Original languageBritish English
    Pages (from-to)31-41
    Number of pages11
    JournalScience of the Total Environment
    Issue number1-3
    StatePublished - 1 Jun 2006


    • Abou Ali River
    • Lebanon
    • Management
    • Temporal variation


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