Fabrication of 3D-Printed Contact Lenses and Their Potential as Color Blindness Ocular Aids

Saba Hittini, Ahmed E. Salih, Fahad Alam, Aya Shanti, Sungmun Lee, Kyriaki Polychronopoulou, Habiba AlSafar, Fahad Almaskari, Haider Butt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Color blindness or color vision deficiency (CVD) is a congenital ocular deficiency that hampers patients’ daily life activities. CVD patients rely mostly on using wearable visual aids that enhance color distinction by blocking problematic wavelengths of light. Contributing to that, this study examines the fabrication of 3D-printed colored contact lens for color blindness management. A vat photopolymerization based 3D printing technology is utilized to fabricate the contact lenses for CVD patients. An in-house prepared resin is mixed with a low-cost colored ink to attain the desired blocking range (520–580 nm). The fabricated lens blocks more than 50% of light at the problematic wavelengths, along with exhibiting minimal leakage when stored and examined in water and contact lens storage solution. Average contact angle and water content values are 48° and 56%, respectively. Mechanical properties demonstrate the physical adequacy of the contact lens. The CVD filtering efficacy of the tinted contact lens and its potential as a CVD wearable is evaluated by comparing its optical performance with that of commercial products. Finally, cytotoxicity analysis of the lens to dermal fibroblast cells reveals the biocompatibility of the lens as the cell viability remains greater than 75% after 24 h.

Original languageBritish English
JournalMacromolecular Materials and Engineering
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • 3D-printing
  • color blindness
  • color vision deficiency (CVD)
  • contact lenses
  • wavelength filters


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