Expert panel consensus recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of acute pain in the Middle East region

A. E. Ayad, N. Ghaly, R. Ragab, S. Majeed, H. Nassar, A. Al Jalabi, A. Al Shoaibi, S. El Noor, A. Salti, J. Costandi, A. Z. Zeidan, S. A. Schug

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

The findings of an expert panel convened to review critically how best to apply evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of acute pain in the Middle East region are presented. The panel recommended a three-step treatment protocol. Patients with mild-to-moderate levels of acute pain should be treated with paracetamol (step 1). If analgesia is insufficient after 1-2 days, a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor or, if gastrointestinal safety and bleeding risk are not an issue, a non-specific nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, should be used (step 2). If analgesia remains inadequate, treatment with tramadol, or paracetamol plus codeine/tramadol is recommended (step 3). Patients reporting severe pain should be referred to a pain clinic or specialist for opioid analgesic treatment. Measures of pain and functioning that have been validated in Arabic, with culturally appropriate and easy to understand descriptors, should be used. Early and aggressive acute pain management is important to reduce the risk of pain becoming chronic, especially in the presence of neuropathic features.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)1123-1141
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of International Medical Research
Volume39
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2011

Keywords

  • Acute pain
  • Guidelines
  • Middle east
  • Non-narcotic analgesics
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Opioid analgesics
  • Selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors

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