Ex situ development and characterization of green antibacterial bacterial cellulose-based composites for potential biomedical applications

Atiya Fatima, Sumayia Yasir, Mazhar Ul-Islam, Tahseen Kamal, Md Wasi Ahmad, Yawar Abbas, Sehrish Manan, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Guang Yang

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    This study is aimed to cost-effectively produce bacterial cellulose (BC) and impart it with antimicrobial activity by introducing bactericidal plant extracts into its three-dimensional matrix through an ex situ modification strategy. Briefly, the fruit wastes were utilized as the carbon source for BC production by Gluconacetobacter hansenii, followed by impregnation of bioactive extracts of Anogeissus dhofarica and Withania somnifera plants. FE-SEM and FTIR analyses showed the successful synthesis of BC-Anogeissus dhofarica (BC-A) and BC-Withania somnifera (BC-W) composites. Both BC-A and BC-W composites held 87% and 75% water of their dry weight, respectively, and each composite retained about 50% of originally absorbed water after 24 h. The bactericidal activities of BC-A and BC-W composites were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as model Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, respectively. Both BC-A and BC-W composites showed impressive antibacterial activity against S. aureus by producing a clear inhibition zone of 13 mm and 6 mm, respectively. Although no clear inhibition zone was observed against E. coli, both composites reduced its growth up to 50% of its live cell density. This is the first report of exploring the antibacterial activities of A. dhofarica and W. somnifera plant extracts and developing their composites with BC, which could be of vital importance for natural products and biopolymer researchers to develop biomedical materials. Graphical abstract: ToC. Low-cost production and ex situ impregnation of bioactive plant-extract into bacterial cellulose matrix showing antibacterial activity. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    Original languageBritish English
    Pages (from-to)307-321
    Number of pages15
    JournalAdvanced Composites and Hybrid Materials
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - Mar 2022


    • Anogeissus dhofarica
    • Antimicrobial activity
    • Bacterial cellulose
    • Composites
    • Withania somnifera


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