Estimation of urine volume in municipal sewage originating from patients receiving antibiotics at a private clinic in Crete, Greece

Antonios G. Katsikaros, Constantinos V. Chrysikopoulos

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9 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study presents an estimation of the urine volume in the wastewater from a real, private clinic in Crete, Greece, during a seven-month period (01/06/2018 to 31/12/2018). Separate estimates were obtained for the volume of urine belonging to patients receiving antibiotics. It was found that the clinic disposed into the local municipal sewage network on the average 3,263 L/month of urine, from which 1,331 L/month (40.8%) belonged to patients receiving antibiotics. According to the pharmacy department of the private clinic, during the period of the study, the most frequently administered groups of antibiotics were on the average 779 g/month cephalosporins (68.1%), 108 g/month fluoroquinolones (9.5%) and others (11.2%), with various active substances including cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and doxycycline. These active substances act like pollutants when disposed via the municipal sewer network into the environment.

Original languageBritish English
Article number134858
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume705
DOIs
StatePublished - 25 Feb 2020

Keywords

  • Antibiotics
  • Cefuroxime
  • Cephalosporin
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Doxycycline
  • Fluoroquinolone
  • Healthcare unit
  • Metronidazol
  • Urine
  • Wastewater

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