Enhanced Inf-TESLA Protocol: A Continuous Connectivity and Low Overhead Authentication Protocol via IoT Devices

Khouloud Eledlebi, Ahmed Adel Alzubaidi, Chan Yeob Yeun, Ernesto Damiani, Victor Mateu, Yousof Al-Hammadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Continuous and low-cost broadcast authentication is a fundamental security service for distributed sensor networks. This paper presents a novel development of a continuous and low-overhead broadcast authentication protocol named enhanced Infinite timed-efficient stream-loss tolerant authentication (enhanced Inf-TESLA) protocol, based on the Inf-TESLA protocol, whose continuous authentication is limited to the duration of its keychains. The enhanced Inf-TESLA protocol satisfies important security properties, including lower communication and computational overhead; a continuous generation of keychains without the need to establish synchronization packets; scalability to a large network; and resistance to masquerading, modification, man-in-the-middle, and replay attacks. We also highlighted an unaddressed authentication issue in the last packets of the original TESLA protocol and proposed a corresponding solution. We performed a simulation analysis using JAVA and proved that, compared to the Inf-TESLA protocol, the enhanced Inf-TESLA protocol can continuously authenticate packets for the entire lifetime of the receiver. We also compared the enhanced Inf-TESLA protocol with the original TESLA protocol in terms of time complexity and critical authentication processes. The results revealed the superiority of the enhanced Inf-TESLA protocol over the original TESLA protocol in terms of the message authentication code (MAC) value generation time and packet authentication time, which we believe can significantly improve the lifetime and lower the energy expenditure of Internet of Things devices with limited power sources.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)54912-54921
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2022


  • Continuous authentication
  • Internet of Things
  • Low overhead
  • TESLA protocol
  • Time complexity


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