Energy Efficient Multiprocessing Solo Mining Algorithms for Public Blockchain Systems

Zeeshan Raza, Irfan Ul Haq, Muhammad Muneeb, Omair Shafiq

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Scopus citations


    Blockchain as a decentralized distributed ledger is revolutionizing the world with a secure design data storage mechanism. In the case of Bitcoin, mining involves a process of packing transactions in a block by calculating a random number termed as a nonce. The nonce calculation is done by special nodes called miners, and all the miners follow the Proof of Work (PoW) mining mechanism to perform the mining task. The transaction verification time in PoW-based blockchain systems, i.e., Bitcoin, is much slower than other digital transaction systems such as PayPal. It needs to be quicker if a system adapts PoW-based blockchain solutions, where there are thousands of transactions being computed at a time. Besides this, PoW mining also consumes a lot of energy to calculate the nonce of a block. Mining pools resulting into aggregated hashpower have been a popular solution to speed up the PoW mining, but they can be attacked by using different types of attacks. Parallel computing can be used to speed up the solo mining methods by utilizing the multiple processes of the contributing processors. In this research, we analyze various consensus mechanisms and see that the PoW-based blockchain systems have the limitations of low transaction confirmation time and high energy consumption. We also analyze various types of consensus layer attacks and their effects on miners and mining pools. To tackle these issues, we propose parallel PoW nonce calculation methods to accelerate the transaction verification process especially in solo mining. We have tested our techniques on different difficulty levels, and our proposed techniques yield better results than the traditional nonce computation mechanisms.

    Original languageBritish English
    Article number9996132
    JournalScientific Programming
    StatePublished - 2021


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