Electro‐Driven Materials and Processes for Lithium Recovery—A Review

Anna Siekierka, Marek Bryjak, Amir Razmjou, Wojciech Kujawski, Aleksandar N. Nikoloski, Ludovic F. Dumée

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The mass production of lithium‐ion batteries and lithium‐rich e‐products that are required for electric vehicles, energy storage devices, and cloud‐connected electronics is driving an unprecedented demand for lithium resources. Current lithium production technologies, in which extraction and purification are typically achieved by hydrometallurgical routes, possess strong environmental impact but are also energy‐intensive and require extensive operational capabilities. The emergence of selective membrane materials and associated electro‐processes offers an avenue to reduce these energy and cost penalties and create more sustainable lithium production approaches. In this review, lithium recovery technologies are discussed considering the origin of the lithium, which can be primary sources such as minerals and brines or e‐waste sources generated from recycling of batteries and other e‐products. The relevance of electro‐membrane processes for selective lithium recovery is discussed as well as the potential and shortfalls of current electro-membrane methods.

Original languageBritish English
Article number343
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • brines
  • electro‐membrane processes
  • e‐waste
  • lithium compounds
  • minerals


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