Electrode Materials for Desalination of Water via Capacitive Deionization

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    Recent years have seen the emergence of capacitive deionization (CDI) as a promising desalination technique for converting sea and wastewater into potable water, due to its energy efficiency and eco-friendly nature. However, its low salt removal capacity and parasitic reactions have limited its effectiveness. As a result, the development of porous carbon nanomaterials as electrode materials have been explored, while taking into account of material characteristics such as morphology, wettability, high conductivity, chemical robustness, cyclic stability, specific surface area, and ease of production. To tackle the parasitic reaction issue, membrane capacitive deionization (mCDI) was proposed which utilizes ion-exchange membranes coupled to the electrode. Fabrication techniques along with the experimental parameters used to evaluate the desalination performance of different materials are discussed in this review to provide an overview of improvements made for CDI and mCDI desalination purposes.

    Original languageBritish English
    Article numbere202302180
    JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
    Issue number35
    StatePublished - 28 Aug 2023


    • Capacitive Deionization
    • Electrode Material
    • Membranes
    • Porous Materials
    • Water Desalination


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