Eight new bispyridinium oximes in comparison with the conventional oximes pralidoxime and obidoxime: In vivo efficacy to protect from diisopropylfluorophosphate toxicity

D. E. Lorke, S. M. Nurulain, M. Y. Hasan, K. Kuča, K. Musilek, Georg Petroianu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations

Abstract

In search for more efficacious reactivators of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by organophosphorus compounds, experimental K-oximes have been synthesized which show good in vitro efficacy. However, AChE inhibition by oximes themselves (as quantified by their intrinsic IC50) is the major cause of oxime toxicity and the dose-limiting factor. To assess K-oxime efficacy in vivo, the extent of protection from mortality induced by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) was quantified by Cox survival analysis and compared with that of the clinically available oximes. Oximes were administered in an equitoxic dosage, i.e. half the LD01. Best protection was conferred by K-27, reducing the relative risk of death (RR) to 16% of control RR (P ≤ 0.05), which was statistically significantly better (P ≤ 0.05) than all other tested oximes, except obidoxime, K-53 and K-75. The efficacy of obidoxime (RR = 0.19), K-48 (RR = 0.28), K-53 (RR = 0.22), K-74 (RR = 0.38) and K-75 (RR = 0.29) was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) better than that of 2-PAM (RR = 0.62) and K-113 (RR = 0.73). No significant protective effect was observed for K-107 and K-108. Our LD50 data show that K-107, K-108 and K-113 (which strongly inhibit AChE in vitro) are in vivo markedly more toxic than all other oximes tested and can therefore only be safely administered at a low dosage which is insufficient to protect from DFP-induced mortality. Dosage calculations based on in vitro IC50 measurements may therefore in future replace in vivo LD50 determinations, thereby reducing the number of animals required.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)920-928
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Toxicology
Volume28
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2008

Keywords

  • Cox analysis
  • DFP
  • Fluorophosphates
  • K-oxime
  • Organophosphate
  • Rat

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