Efficient solution-processed small-molecule solar cells with inverted structure

Aung Ko Ko Kyaw, Dong Hwan Wang, Vinay Gupta, Jie Zhang, Suresh Chand, Guillermo C. Bazan, Alan J. Heeger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

475 Scopus citations


We successfully demonstrate inverted structure small-molecule (SM) solar cells with an efficiency of 7.88% using ZnO and PEIE as an interfacial layer. Modification of ZnO with a cost-effective PEIE thin layer increases the efficiency of the inverted cell as a result of reducing the work function of the cathode and suppressing the trap-assisted recombination. In addition to the high efficiency, the inverted SM solar cells are relatively stable in air compared to conventional cells.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)2397-2402
Number of pages6
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number17
StatePublished - 7 May 2013


  • inverted solar cell
  • polyelectrolyte
  • solution-processed small molecule
  • ZnO sol-gel


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