Efficient Frequency-Domain Modeling and Circuit Simulation of Transmission Lines

L. Miguel Silveira, Jacob K. White, Ibrahim M. Elfadel, Moni Chilukuri, Kenneth S. Kundert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


In this paper we describe an algorithm for efficient SPICE-level simulation of transmission lines with arbitrary scattering parameter descriptions. That is, the line can be represented in the form of a frequency-domain model or a table of measured frequency-domain data. Our approach initially uses a forced stable decade-by-decade l2 minimization approach to construct a sum of rational functions approximation, but the approximation has dozens of poles and zeros. This unnecessarily high-order model is then reduced using a guaranteed stable model order reduction scheme based on balanced realizations. Once the reduced-order model is derived, it can be combined with the transmission line's inherent delay to generate an impulse response. Finally, following what is now a standard approach, the impulse response can be efficiently incorporated in a circuit simulator using recursive convolution. An example of a transmission line with skin-effect is examined to both demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and to show its generality.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)505-513
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology Part B
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1994


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