## Abstract

Heat transfer enhancement in horizontal annuli using variable thermal conductivity and variable viscosity of CuO-water Nanofluid is investigated numerically. The base case of simulation used thermal conductivity and viscosity data that consider temperature property dependence and nanoparticle size. It was observed that for Ra≥10^{4}, the average Nusselt number was deteriorated by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles. However, for Ra=10^{3}, the average Nusselt number enhancement depends on aspect ratio of the annulus as well as volume fraction of nanoparticles. Also, for Ra=10^{3}, the average Nusselt number was less sensitive to volume fraction of nanoparticles at high aspect ratio and the average Nusselt number increased by increasing the volume fraction of nanoaprticles for aspect ratios ≤0.4. For Ra≥10^{4}, the Nusselt number was deteriorated everywhere around the cylinder surface especially at high aspect ratio. However, this reduction is only restricted to certain regions around the cylinder surface for Ra=10^{3}. For Ra≥10^{4}, the Maxwell-Garnett and the Chon et al. conductivity models demonstrated similar results. But, there was a deviation in the prediction at Ra=10^{3} and this deviation becomes more signicant at high volume fraction of nanoparticles. The Nguyen et al. data and the Brinkman model give completely different predictions for Ra≥10^{4}, where the difference in prediction of the Nusselt number reached 50%. However, this difference was less than 10% at Ra=10^{3}.

Original language | British English |
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Pages (from-to) | 1-9 |

Number of pages | 9 |

Journal | Journal of Heat Transfer |

Volume | 132 |

Issue number | 5 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - May 2010 |

## Keywords

- Annulus
- Nanofluid
- Natural convection
- Thermal conductivity
- Viscosity