Diabetes and COVID-19: Short- and Long-Term Consequences

Charlotte Steenblock, Mohamed Hassanein, Emran G. Khan, Mohamad Yaman, Margrit Kamel, Mahmoud Barbir, Dietrich E. Lorke, John A. Rock, Dean Everett, Saqipi Bejtullah, Adrian Heimerer, Ermal Tahirukaj, Petrit Beqiri, Stefan R. Bornstein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


When the corona pandemic commenced more than two years ago, it was quickly recognized that people with metabolic diseases show an augmented risk of severe COVID-19 and an increased mortality compared to people without these comorbidities. Furthermore, an infection with SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to lead to an aggravation of metabolic diseases and in single cases to new-onset metabolic disorders. In addition to the increased risk for people with diabetes in the acute phase of COVID-19, this patient group also seems to be more often affected by long-COVID and to experience more long-term consequences than people without diabetes. The mechanisms behind these discrepancies between people with and without diabetes in relation to COVID-19 are not completely understood yet and will require further research and follow-up studies during the following years. In the current review, we discuss why patients with diabetes have this higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms not only in the acute phase of the disease but also in relation to long-COVID, vaccine breakthrough infections and re-infections. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of lockdown on glycemic control.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)503-509
Number of pages7
JournalHormone and Metabolic Research
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • COVID-19
  • diabetes mellitus type 1
  • diabetes mellitus type 2
  • long-COVID
  • metabolic syndrome


Dive into the research topics of 'Diabetes and COVID-19: Short- and Long-Term Consequences'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this