Development of polybenzoxazine–silica–titania (PBZ–SiO2–TiO2) hybrid nanomaterials with high surface free energy

M. Selvi, S. Devaraju, M. R. Vengatesan, M. Alagar

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    13 Scopus citations


    In the present work, silica and titania reinforced polybenzoxazine (PBZ–SiO2–TiO2) hybrid nanomaterial possessing high surface free energy have been developed using dimethylol-functional benzoxazine monomer (4HBA-BZ), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-(isocyanatopropyl)triethoxysilane (ICPTS), titaniumisopropoxide (TIPO) through an in situ sol–gel process. Data obtained from the contact angle measurement indicate that the hybrid materials are hydrophilic in nature and possess a high surface free energy. For example, hybrid PBZ obtained from 1:1:0.6:0.4 (m:m:w:w) ratio of 4HBA-BZ:ICPTS:TEOS:TIPO (PBST4) exhibit a high surface free energy of 38.2 mJm−2 which is higher than that of neat polybenzoxazine (29.5 mJm−2). Further data resulted from thermal studies indicate that the hybrid PBZ possess higher values of Tg, thermal stability and char yield than those of neat PBZ.

    Original languageBritish English
    Pages (from-to)518-526
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - Dec 2014


    • Hydrophilicity
    • Polybenzoxazine
    • Silica
    • Sol–gel
    • Titania


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