Development of low-cost bacterial cellulose-pomegranate peel extract-based antibacterial composite for potential biomedical applications

Mazhar Ul-Islam, Wafa Alhajaim, Atiya Fatima, Sumayia Yasir, Tahseen Kamal, Yawar Abbas, Shaukat Khan, Abdul Hakim Khan, Sehrish Manan, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Guang Yang

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    19 Scopus citations


    This study was aimed to develop low-cost bacterial cellulose (BC)-based antibacterial composite with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract (PGPE) for potential biomedical applications. BC was cost-effectively produced by utilizing food wastes, and PGPE was ex situ impregnated into its hydrogel. Field-emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM) observation showed a nanofibrous and microporous morphology of pristine BC and confirmed the development of BC-PGPE composite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the chemical interaction of PGPE with BC nanofibers. BC-PGPE composite held 97 % water of its dry weight and retained it for more than 48 h. The BC-PGPE composite exhibited better reswelling capabilities than pristine BC after three consecutive re-wetting cycles. The antibacterial activity of the BC-PGPE composite was determined via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), disc diffusion, and plate count methods. The PGPE extract showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), both in the form of extract and composite with BC, with relatively better activity against the former. The BC-PGPE composite produced a 17 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, while no inhibition zone was formed against E. coli. Furthermore, BC-PGPE composite caused a 100 % and 50 % reduction in the growth of S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that BC-PGPE composite could be a promising antibacterial wound dressing material.

    Original languageBritish English
    Article number123269
    JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
    StatePublished - 15 Mar 2023


    • Antimicrobial activity
    • Bacterial cellulose
    • BC-PEPG composite
    • Pomegranate peel extract


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