Design potential and future prospects of lead-free halide perovskites in photovoltaic devices

Mohammad Adil Afroz, Anupriya Singh, Ritesh Kant Gupta, Rabindranath Garai, Naveen Kumar Tailor, None Yukta, Shivani Choudhary, Bhavna Sharma, Prerna Mahajan, Bhavya Padha, Sonali Verma, Sandeep Arya, Vinay Gupta, Seckin Akin, Daniel Prochowicz, Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli, S. P. Singh, Parameswar K. Iyer, Pankaj Yadav, Hanlin HuGoutam De, Soumitra Satapathi

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    11 Scopus citations


    Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites (LHPs) have emerged as a promising material to replace conventional semiconductors for different applications owing to their superior optoelectronic properties. However, major concerns like toxicity and stability issues of lead (Pb) based perovskites have tempted researchers to explore the potential of alternative Pb-free perovskite structures by replacing the Pb with nontoxic, or at least less-toxic, and less moisture/oxygen sensitive elements. In this review, we have discussed the effect of Pb2+ replacement with alternative metal ions on their band structures, thus illustrating their impact on the fundamental optoelectronic properties (band gap, binding energy, dielectric constant, effective mass, diffusion length, charge carrier lifetime, mobility, and defects) and identified the reasons, which make them lag behind their Pb-based counterparts. Additionally, the current scenario of the Pb-free perovskite photovoltaics, i.e., the effects of doping and interfacial engineering on the stability and photovoltaic performances, have been presented. The strategies of Pb replacement, such as isovalent or heterovalent substitution resulting in ABX3, A2B(i)B(iii)X6, A3□B(iii)2X9 and A2□B(iv)X6 materials have been highlighted (here □ denotes vacancy). This review highlights the potential of Pb-free perovskites and presents an overview of directions and strategies for their application in solar photovoltaics.

    Original languageBritish English
    Pages (from-to)13133-13173
    Number of pages41
    JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
    Issue number25
    StatePublished - 29 May 2023


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