Design of biorefineries towards carbon neutrality: A critical review

Alvin B. Culaba, Andres Philip Mayol, Jayne Lois G. San Juan, Aristotle T. Ubando, Argel A. Bandala, Ronnie S. Concepcion, Melchizedek Alipio, Wei Hsin Chen, Pau Loke Show, Jo Shu Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The increase in worldwide demand for energy is driven by the rapid increase in population and exponential economic development. This resulted in the fast depletion of fossil fuel supplies and unprecedented levels of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. To valorize biomass into different bioproducts, one of the popular and carbon–neutral alternatives is biorefineries. This system is an appropriate technology in the circular economy model. Various research highlighted the role of biorefineries as a centerpiece in the carbon–neutral ecosystem of technologies of the circular economy model. To fully realize this, various improvements and challenges need to be addressed. This paper presents a critical and timely review of the challenges and future direction of biorefineries as an alternative carbon–neutral energy source.

Original languageBritish English
Article number128256
JournalBioresource Technology
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Biofuel
  • Biomass
  • Biorefinery
  • Carbon Neutral
  • Circular Economy
  • Machine Learning


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