Covalent Organic Polymers and Frameworks for Fluorescence-Based Sensors

Tina Skorjanc, Dinesh Shetty, Matjaz Valant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

204 Scopus citations


Following the advancements and diversification in synthetic strategies for porous covalent materials in the literature, the materials science community started to investigate the performance of covalent organic polymers (COPs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) in applications that require large surface areas for interaction with other molecules, chemical stability, and insolubility. Sensorics is an area where COPs and COFs have demonstrated immense potential and achieved high levels of sensitivity and selectivity on account of their tunable structures. In this review, we focus on those covalent polymeric systems that use fluorescence spectroscopy as a method of detection. After briefly reviewing the physical basis of fluorescence-based sensors, we delve into various kinds of analytes that have been explored with COPs and COFs, namely, heavy metal ions, explosives, biological molecules, amines, pH, volatile organic compounds and solvents, iodine, enantiomers, gases, and anions. Throughout this work, we discuss the mechanisms involved in each sensing application and aim to quantify the potency of the discussed sensors by providing limits of detection and quenching constants when available. This review concludes with a summary of the surveyed literature and raises a few concerns that should be addressed in the future development of COP and COF fluorescence-based sensors.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)1461-1481
Number of pages21
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number4
StatePublished - 23 Apr 2021


  • amines
  • biological molecules
  • covalent organic frameworks
  • covalent organic polymers
  • enantiomers
  • explosives
  • fluorescence
  • ions
  • quenching
  • sensors


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