CO2 recycling in the iron and steel industry via power-to-gas and oxy-fuel combustion

Jorge Perpiñán, Manuel Bailera, Luis M. Romeo, Begoña Peña, Valerie Eveloy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The iron and steel industry is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. It is responsible for emitting 4-5% of the total anthropogenic CO2. As an energy-intensive industry, it is essential that the iron and steel sector accomplishes important carbon emission reduction. Carbon capture is one of the most promising alternatives to achieve this aim. Moreover, if carbon utilization via power-to-gas is integrated with carbon capture, there could be a significant increase in the interest of this alternative in the iron and steel sector. This paper presents several simulations to integrate oxy-fuel processes and power-to-gas in a steel plant, and compares gas productions (coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, and blast oxygen furnace gas), energy requirements, and carbon reduction with a base case in order to obtain the technical feasibility of the proposals. Two different power-to-gas technology implementations were selected, together with the oxy blast furnace and the top gas recycling technologies. These integrations are based on three strategies: (i) converting the blast furnace (BF) process into an oxy-fuel process, (ii) recirculating blast furnace gas (BFG) back to the BF itself, and (iii) using a methanation process to generate CH4 and also introduce it to the BF. Applying these improvements to the steel industry, we achieved reductions in CO2 emissions of up to 8%, and reductions in coal fuel consumption of 12.8%. On the basis of the results, we are able to conclude that the energy required to achieve the above emission savings could be as low as 4.9 MJ/kg CO2 for the second implementation. These values highlight the importance of carrying out future research in the implementation of carbon capture and power-to-gas in the industrial sector.

Original languageBritish English
Article number7090
Issue number21
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Iron and steel industry
  • Ironmaking
  • Methanation
  • Oxy-fuel combustion
  • Power-to-gas
  • Top gas recycling


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