Cost-Effective 4DoF Manipulator for General Applications

Sandro A. Magalhães, António Paulo Moreira, Filipe Neves dos Santos, Jorge Dias, Luis Santos

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Nowadays, robotic manipulators’ uses are broader than industrial needs. They are applied to perform agricultural tasks, consumer services, medical surgeries, among others. The development of new cost-effective robotic arms assumes a prominent position to enable their wide-spread adoption in these application areas. Bearing these ideas in mind, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, introduce the hardware and software architecture and position-control design for a four Degree of Freedom (DoF) manipulator constituted by high-resolution stepper motors and incremental encoders and a cost-effective price. Secondly, to describe the mitigation strategies adopted to lead with the manipulator’s position using incremental encoders during startup and operating modes. The described solution has a maximum circular workspace of 0.7 m and a maximum payload of 3 kg. The developed architecture was tested, inducing the manipulator to perform a square path. Tests prove an accumulative error of 12.4 mm. All the developed code for firmware and ROS drivers was made publicly available.

Original languageBritish English
Title of host publicationIntelligent Systems and Applications - Proceedings of the 2021 Intelligent Systems Conference, IntelliSys
EditorsKohei Arai
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9783030821982
StatePublished - 2022
Event Intelligent Systems Conference, IntelliSys 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 2 Sep 20213 Sep 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Networks and Systems
ISSN (Print)2367-3370
ISSN (Electronic)2367-3389


Conference Intelligent Systems Conference, IntelliSys 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • 4DoF manipulator
  • Manipulator control
  • Manipulator design
  • Position-control
  • Robotic arm


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