Conversion of the toxic and hazardous Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil into methyl ester using green and recyclable silver oxide nanoparticles

Rozina, Mushtaq Ahmad, Saira Asif, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Muhammad Mubashir, Awais Bokhari, Shazia Sultana, Ahmad Mukhtar, Muhammad Zafar, Aqeel Ahmed Bazmi, Sami Ullah, Mohd Shariq Khan, Apurav Krishna Koyande, Md Mofijur, Pau Loke Show

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


The cleaner and sustainable production of biodiesel from toxic and hazardous non-edible seed oils offer a remarkable opportunity to deal with energy crises and provide a renewable substitute to depleting fossil fuels. In the current study, the potential of the novel, toxic and non-edible seed oil of Zanthoxylum armatum was investigated for eco-friendly production of biodiesel catalysed by green nanoparticles of silver oxide. Silver oxide nanoparticles were synthesised with aqueous leaf extract of Silybum marianum. Heterogeneous green nanocatalysts were preferred due to their recyclable nature and easy recovery. The maximum yield of 95% of methyl ester was obtained at optimum reaction conditions of oil to methanol molar ratio 1:7, catalyst loading 0.5 (wt.%), reaction temperature 90 °C and reaction time 2 h. Characterisation of synthesised nanoparticles of silver oxide was carried out with X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy diffraction X-ray (EDX). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed the formation of methyl esters. 5, 8-octadecenoic acid was found to be the major fatty acid methyl ester in the biodiesel sample. Fuel properties of biodiesel were investigated and found comparable to international standards of ASTM D-6571 and EN-14214. It was concluded from the current investigation that Zanthoxylum armatum is a potential biomass feedstock for the sustainable production of biodiesel using green nanoparticles of silver oxide.

Original languageBritish English
Article number122296
StatePublished - 15 Feb 2022


  • Biodiesel
  • Biomass
  • Non-edible seed oil
  • Silver oxide catalyst
  • Zanthoxylum armatum


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