Computational Analysis of the Inhibition Mechanism of NOTUM by the ONIOM Method

Ibrahim Yildiz, Banu Sizirici Yildiz

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4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Notum is a member of serine hydrolyses that cleaves the palmitoleate moiety from Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) ligands. This enzyme plays crucial functions through modulating the Wnt signaling pathway. Inhibition of Notum carries therapeutic effects against a number of maladies including osteoporosis, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. Recently, a class of irreversible inhibitors based on esters of 4-(indolin-1-yl)-4-oxobutanoic acid have been reported. Using the crystal structures of enzyme-4-(indolin-1-yl)-4-oxobutanoate adduct and 4-(indolin-1-yl)-4-oxobutanoic acid-enzyme complex, we studied computationally the proposed inhibition mechanism using model systems based on the own n-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (ONIOM) method. In the first place, model systems were formulated to investigate the transesterification between the catalytic serine residue, Ser-232, and the methyl ester of 4-(indolin-1-yl)-4-oxobutanoate. In the second place, the hydrolysis mechanism of the resultant enzyme-inhibitor adduct was studied. The energetics of these steps were analyzed using a density functional theory functional in the ONIOM method. In addition, the roles of active-site residues during these steps were highlighted. It was found that the hydrolysis of the covalent adduct is highly endergonic corroborating the irreversible inhibition mechanism. These results will shed light not only on the inhibition mechanism but also on the catalytic mechanism.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)13333-13342
Number of pages10
JournalACS Omega
Volume7
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - 19 Apr 2022

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