Comparative study of microscale and macroscale technique for encapsulation of Calotropis gigantea extract in metal-conjugated nanomatrices for invasive ductal carcinoma: Scientific Reports

A. Aftab, B. Ahmad, S. Bashir, S. Rafique, M. Bashir, T. Ghani, A. Gul, A.U. Shah, R. Khan, A.A. Sajini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

The encapsulation of plant extract in nanomatrices has limitations due to its adhesion to walls, size control, high cost and long durations that results in low yield. Macroscale and microscale level techniques for development of micro/nanoparticles may impact the encapsulation of plant extract. This study aimed to evaluate the relative efficiency of microscale and macroscale techniques for encapsulation of plant extract, which is not compared yet. Keeping this in view, encapsulation of Calotropis gigantea leaves extract (CaG) was attained in silver-conjugated poliglusam nanomatrices (POL/Ag) to induce apoptosis in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells. The ethanolic CaG extract was prepared using percolation method and characterized by chemical tests for its active phytochemical compounds. The droplet-based microfluidic system was utilized as microscale encapsulation technique for CaG in nanomatrices at two different aqueous to oil flow rate ratios 1.0:1.5, and 1.0:3.0. Moreover, conventional batch system was utilized as macroscale encapsulation technique consisted of hot plate magnetic stirrer. The prepared nanomatrices were analysed for antioxidant activity using DPPH test and for cytotoxicity analysis using MCF-7 cells. The characteristic peaks of UV–Vis, FTIR and XRD spectrum confirmed the synthesis of CaG(POL/Ag) by both the encapsulation methods. However, microfluidic system was found to be more expedient because of attaining small and uniform sized silver nanoparticles (92 ± 19 nm) at high flow rate and achieving high encapsulation efficiency (80.25%) as compared to the conventional batch method (52.5%). CaG(POL/Ag) nanomatrices found to have significant antioxidant activity (p = 0.0014) against DPPH radical scavenging activity. The CaG(POL/Ag) of the smallest sized formulated by the microfluidic system has also shown the highest cytotoxicity (90%) as compared to batch method (70%) at 80 µg/mL. Our results indicate that the microscale technique using microfluidic system is a more efficient method to formulate size-controlled CaG(POL/Ag) nanomatrices and achieve high encapsulation of plant extract. Additionally, CaG(Pol/Ag) was found to be an efficient new combination for inducing potent (p < 0.0001) apoptosis in IDC cells. Therefore, CaG(Pol/Ag) can be further tested as an anti-cancer agent for in-vivo experiments. © 2023, Springer Nature Limited.
Original languageBritish English
JournalSci. Rep.
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Calotropis
  • Carcinoma, Ductal
  • Metal Nanoparticles
  • Plant Extracts
  • Silver
  • antioxidant
  • metal nanoparticle
  • plant extract
  • silver
  • ductal carcinoma

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