Chromatographic behavior of xanthines in aqueous normal phase chromatography using titania stationary phase

Maguy Abi Jaoudé, Jérôme Randon

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The chromatographic behavior of native titania was investigated in aqueous normal phase chromatography using a set of N-methylated xanthines as polar test solutes. In agreement with a hydrophilic interaction on a polar bed, the retention of xanthine models increased mainly along their molecular polarity. Adsorption of these molecules on the hydrated surface of titania prevailed as a retention mechanism for low water contents in the mobile phase. Several N-methylated xanthines could be easily discriminated along the number and position of their methyl groups while the nitrogen atom at position 3 was found deeply involved in the retention on titania. To get further insights on the interactions occurring on the surface of titania, the retention of xanthine derivatives based on ligand-exchange was evaluated as a function of the buffer concentration and type. The separation efficiency of native titania for the set of N-methylated xanthines was comparable to that observed on zirconia but lower than that obtained on native silica due to mixed-mode interactions. However, titania exhibited a superior ability to recognize several isomeric positions of xanthine derivatives in comparison to zirconia and silica.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)721-725
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Issue number5
StatePublished - 4 Feb 2011


  • ANP
  • Caffeine
  • Selectivity
  • Silica
  • Titania
  • Xanthine derivatives
  • Zirconia


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