Chemically Gradient Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Framework Crystal Film: Angewandte Chemie - International Edition

A.K. Mohammed, J. Raya, A. Pandikassala, M.A. Addicoat, S. Gaber, M. Aslam, L. Ali, S. Kurungot, D. Shetty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) are ordered supramolecular solid structures, however, nothing much explored as centimetre-scale self-standing films. The fabrication of such crystals comprising self-supported films is challenging due to the limited flexibility and interaction of the crystals, and therefore studies on two-dimensional macrostructures of HOFs are limited to external supports. Herein, we introduce a novel chemical gradient strategy to fabricate a crystal-deposited HOF film on an in situ-formed covalent organic polymer film (Tam-Bdca-CGHOF). The fabricated film showed versatility in chemical bonding along its thickness from covalent to hydrogen-bonded network. The kinetic-controlled Tam-Bdca-CGHOF showed enhanced proton conductivity (8.3×10−5 S cm−1) compared to its rapid kinetic analogue, Tam-Bdca-COP (2.1×10−5 S cm−1), which signifies the advantage of bonding-engineering in the same system. © 2023 The Authors. Angewandte Chemie International Edition published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.
Original languageBritish English
JournalAngew. Chem. Int. Ed.
Issue number29
StatePublished - 2023


  • Chemical Gradience
  • Crystal Films
  • Free-Standing Films
  • Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Framework
  • Interfacial Chemistry
  • Proton Conductivity
  • Hydrogen bonds
  • Polymer films
  • Proton conductivity
  • Semiconducting films
  • Centimeter-scale
  • Chemical gradience
  • Crystal films
  • Freestanding films
  • Hydrogen-bonded organic framework
  • Organics
  • Self supported films
  • Self-standing films
  • Solid structures
  • Two-dimensional
  • Hydrogen


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