Carbon nanomaterials for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

Zheng Long Xu, Jang Kyo Kim, Kisuk Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

363 Scopus citations


Taking advantage of a high theoretical energy density of 2567 Wh kg-1, lithium sulfur batteries (LSBs) have been considered promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. Nevertheless, challenging issues involving both sulfur cathode and lithium anode hinder their practical applications, which are followed by the extensive research efforts to resolve them. A wide variety of carbon nanomaterials with different characteristics has played an important role in enhancing the performance of LSBs via immobilizing sulfur in cathodes, accommodating the volume expansion of sulfur, enhancing the reaction kinetics and stabilizing lithium anodes. This report overviews the state-of-the-art progress in designing and fabricating nanocarbon for advanced LSBs with particular focuses on the correlations among porosity, electrical conductivity and surface chemistry as some of the most critical factors. More importantly, statistical analysis of electrochemical performance of batteries collected from literatures allows us to identify substantial disparities between the current achievements and the requirements for real-world applications. In an effort to bridge this gap, we highlight recent advances in the design of LSBs with improved sulfur loading, enhanced charge transfer and minimized electrolyte/sulfur ratio. Conclusions and perspectives for future development of nanocarbon in LSBs are proposed.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)84-107
Number of pages24
JournalNano Today
StatePublished - Apr 2018


  • Carbon nanomaterials
  • electrode design
  • high energy density
  • lithium sulfur batteries


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