Blockchain for IoT-based smart cities: Recent advances, requirements, and future challenges

Umer Majeed, Latif U. Khan, Ibrar Yaqoob, S. M.Ahsan Kazmi, Khaled Salah, Choong Seon Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

173 Scopus citations


A remarkable interest in the Internet of Things (IoT)-based smart cities from both academia and industry has been observed in recent years. Smart cities can offer various smart applications such as intelligent transportation, industry 4.0, smart banking, among others, for boosting the life quality of citizens. Security is one of the key challenges of a smart city. One can enable smart cities with a blockchain to offer enhanced security via storing transactions in a secure, transparent, decentralized, and immutable ledger. However, both blockchain and smart cities are in their infancy and significant research efforts are needed to integrate them. In this paper, we comprehensively review the role of blockchain in enabling IoT-based smart cities. First, we present the evolution of blockchain technology in terms of constituent technologies, consensus algorithms, and blockchain platforms. Second, we discuss and critically evaluate various smart applications enabled by blockchain. Third, we present real-world blockchain implementation in smart cities as case studies. Fourth, we present the key requirements to integrate blockchain with smart cities. Finally, we present open research challenges along with their key causes and possible solutions.

Original languageBritish English
Article number103007
JournalJournal of Network and Computer Applications
StatePublished - 1 May 2021


  • Blockchain
  • Ethereum
  • Internet of Things
  • Security
  • Smart city
  • Smart contracts
  • Smart environments


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