Blockchain for IoT-Based Healthcare: Background, Consensus, Platforms, and Use Cases

Partha Pratim Ray, DInesh Dash, Khaled Salah, Neeraj Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

183 Scopus citations


Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain technologies are being heavily exploited and used in may domains, especially for e-healthcare. In healthcare, IoT devices have the ability to provide real-time sensory data from patients to be processed and analyzed. Collected IoT data are subjected to centralized computation, processing, and storage. Such centralization can be problematic, as it can be a single point of failure, mistrust, data manipulation and tampering, and privacy evasion. Blockchain can solve such serious problems by providing decentralized computation and storage for IoT data. Therefore, the integration IoT and blockchain technologies can become a reasonable choice for the design of a decentralized IoT-based e-healthcare systems. In this article, first, we give a brief background on blockchain. Second, popular consensus algorithms used in blockchain are discussed in the context of e-health. Third, blockchain platforms are reviewed for their appropriateness in IoT-based e-healthcare. Finally, few use cases are methodologically given to show how key features of the IoT and blockchain can be leveraged to support healthcare services and ecosystems. We also propose a data-flow architecture that combines the IoT with blockchain, called IoBHealth, that can be used for storing, accessing, and managing of e-healthcare data.

Original languageBritish English
Article number8964444
Pages (from-to)85-94
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Blockchain
  • e-health
  • healthcare
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • IoT data


Dive into the research topics of 'Blockchain for IoT-Based Healthcare: Background, Consensus, Platforms, and Use Cases'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this