Blockchain for AI: Review and open research challenges

Khaled Salah, M. Habib Ur Rehman, Nishara Nizamuddin, Ala Al-Fuqaha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

576 Scopus citations


Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain have become two of the most trending and disruptive technologies. Blockchain technology has the ability to automate payment in cryptocurrency and to provide access to a shared ledger of data, transactions, and logs in a decentralized, secure, and trusted manner. Also with smart contracts, blockchain has the ability to govern interactions among participants with no intermediary or a trusted third party. AI, on the other hand, offers intelligence and decision-making capabilities for machines similar to humans. In this paper, we present a detailed survey on blockchain applications for AI. We review the literature, tabulate, and summarize the emerging blockchain applications, platforms, and protocols specifically targeting AI area. We also identify and discuss open research challenges of utilizing blockchain technologies for AI.

Original languageBritish English
Article number8598784
Pages (from-to)10127-10149
Number of pages23
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2019


  • Artificial intelligence
  • blockchain
  • consensus protocols
  • cybersecurity
  • machine learning
  • smart contracts


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