Blockchain based transactive energy systems for voltage regulation in active distribution networks

Shivam Saxena, Hany E.Z. Farag, Hjalmar Turesson, Henry Kim

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    28 Scopus citations


    Transactive energy systems (TES) are modern mechanisms in electric power systems that allow disparate control agents to utilise distributed generation units to engage in energy transactions and provide ancillary services to the grid. Although voltage regulation is a crucial ancillary grid service within active distribution networks (ADNs), previous work has not adequately explored how this service can be offered in terms of its incentivisation, contract auditability, and enforcement. Blockchain technology shows promise in being a key enabler of TES, allowing agents to engage in trustless, persistent transactions that are both enforceable and auditable. To that end, this study proposes a blockchain based TES that enables agents to receive incentives for providing voltage regulation services by (i) maintaining an auditable reputation rating for each agent that is increased proportionately with each mitigation of a voltage violation, (ii) utilising smart contracts to enforce the validity of each transaction and penalise reputation ratings in case of a mitigation failure, and (iii) automating the negotiation and bidding of agent services by implementing the contract net protocol as a smart contract. Experimental results on both simulated and real-world ADNs are executed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed system.

    Original languageBritish English
    Pages (from-to)646-656
    Number of pages11
    JournalIET Smart Grid
    Issue number5
    StatePublished - 1 Oct 2020


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